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Learn More. Increased cannabis potency has renewed concerns that secondhand exposure to cannabis smoke can produce positive drug tests. A systematic study was conducted of smoke exposure on drug-free participants. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes 5. Six non-smokers were seated with smokers in an alternating manner. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3.

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These demonstrate that extreme cannabis smoke exposure can produce positive urine tests at commonly utilized cutoff concentrations. However, positive tests are likely to be rare, limited to the hours immediately post-exposure, and occur only under environmental circumstances where exposure is obvious. Cannabis is the most widely produced and illicitly consumed drug globally. The of cannabis users has been estimated to be as high as million worldwide, and prevalence of use has remained stable in recent years 1.

Will i test positive from second hand exposure?

Over the last decade, indoor cultivation of cannabis has proliferated. Increased indoor growing has been mirrored by an increase in shops and Internet sites that provide information, supplies, equipment and seeds for production. The increased support system for cannabis cultivation together with availability of high-quality seeds has greatly expanded access to high-yielding and highly potent cannabis varieties 1.

Cannabis terminology varies considerably and numerous terms are in use referring to similar or related cannabis products. Globally, two main products are produced from cannabis: cannabis herb and cannabis resin. Cannabis herb is produced and consumed in almost all countries of the world, whereas cannabis resin is produced primarily in North Africa, the Near and Middle East and South-West Asia 6.

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More recently, there has been a proliferation of alternative cannabis preparations and routes of administration with the advent of more relaxed laws regarding cannabis use and the introduction of a commercial market in some areas. The end result of decarboxylation of either acid is the formation of THC 7.

THC potency of federal seizures increased steadily over the ensuing years, reaching 6. Given these consistent potency increases, the possible impact of higher potency cannabis on various drug-testing programs prompted renewed study and evaluation. Concerns have been expressed for decades that a non-smoker in the vicinity of cannabis smokers are exposed, in much the same way as non-smokers are exposed to tobacco smoke, to vaporized constituents of cannabis.

A variety of studies have documented the extent of secondhand cannabis smoke exposure to non-smokers under varying condition such as enclosed unventilated rooms [six non-smokers exposed to 16 smoked cannabis cigarettes, 2. Two more recent exposure studies have been conducted with higher potency cannabis cigarettes.

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In one study, four non-smokers were exposed to cannabis smoke generated by four smokers who consumed a single cannabis cigarette containing either 5. The second study was conducted as a field experiment in a ventilated coffee shop establishment where cannabis and hashish can be openly consumed in the Netherlands In this study, eight non-smokers remained in the shop for 3 h in the presence of numerous smokers who consumed cannabis primarily by smoking, but some individuals used hashish pipes or water pipes.

The exact cannabis potency, of cigarettes, or amount of cannabis consumed in this study is not known.

Non-smoker exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke. i. urine screening and confirmation

As with the prior studies, the two studies involving high-potency cannabis exposure to non-smokers resulted in the detection of THC and metabolites in urine, blood and oral fluid specimens collected from non-smokers after exposure. Specifically, the study was deed to ascertain the effects of cannabis potency and room ventilation on both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcomes when non-smokers were exposed to concentrated cannabis smoke.

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Urine and other biological fluids and tissues were collected before and after smoke exposure to determine if exposure under any of these conditions would produce positive drug tests based on commonly used drug-testing standards. This report provides a detailed description of the experimental conditions employed in the study and provides complete initial screening and confirmatory data derived from urine specimens.

Volunteer participants were recruited through newspaper advertisements, flyers posted on campus and community bulletin boards and word-of-mouth. Two types of volunteers were recruited: i current cannabis users self-reported use of cannabis at least two times per week during the prior 90 days who were not currently trying to quit; and ii healthy volunteers who had a history of lifetime cannabis exposure, but had not used cannabis or other illicit substances within the 6 months self-report.

Non-smokers were required to test negative for all of the above substances at screening and at admission to experimental sessions. Only non- or minimal tobacco users were enrolled; no tobacco use was permitted during study participation. Eight current cannabis users participated in three experimental cannabis smoking sessions.

The eight subjects three females and five males had an average [standard deviation SDrange] age of 29 6, 24—40 years, weighed an average of 75 20, 50— kg and had an average body mass index of The smokers self-reported an average of 12 7, 2—25 years smoking cannabis.

They reported an average of 28 2, 25—30 days of cannabis use in the month and consumed an average of 1.

Introduction

The 18 non-smoker participants nine females and nine males had an average age of 28 7, 20—45 years, weighed an average of 74 12, 55—98 kg and had an average body mass index of To the extent possible, conditions were standardized across sessions. Consequently, the six cannabis smokers who participated in Session 1 were invited to continue their participation in Sessions 2 and 3.

Each of the 18 non-smoking subjects participated in only a single session. Written informed consent was obtained prior to study participation. The study was approved by the Johns Hopkins Medicine Institutional Review Board and conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the Helsinki Declaration. All subjects were compensated for their participation.

A specially deed smoking chamber, made of plexi-glass walls with aluminum supports and measuring 10 ft. It was situated in a larger room that allowed direct observation of all parts of the chamber from three sides. The door to the exposure chamber was also constructed of plexi-glass and aluminum and was fitted with magnets that ran the entire perimeter to create a seal when closed.

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The door remained closed during each session with two exceptions. Consequently, the door was opened briefly for exit and entry in those sessions. During each exposure session, six smokers and six non-smokers were seated in alternate seating positions around the table.

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All participants donned disposable paper clothing including booties over their own clothing before entering the experimental chamber for each session. Smokers also wore disposable head coverings to prevent deposition of cannabinoids on their hair during the session.

Non-smokers did not wear head coverings because deposition of cannabinoids on hair during naturalistic secondhand exposure might affect hair drug testa secondary study outcome. All participants were supplied with goggles for use as needed for reduction of eye irritation from the smoke. During each session, participants remained in their ased seats and played games, conversed, or engaged in other activities e.

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Smokers were allowed to drink from bottles of water supplied at the start of the session. Non-smokers were not allowed to eat or drink during the session or after the session until after the first oral fluid specimen was collected. As a safety measure, pulse oximeter readings were collected pre-session and at min intervals during each session to ensure that an adequate oxygen supply was maintained within the chamber.

Cannabis for research purposes was obtained through the US federal drug supply program. Two types of Mississippi-grown cannabis with varying cannabinoid content were supplied for the study and were characterized and rolled into cigarettes by staff at Research Triangle Institute, International.

The higher potency cigarettes were hand-rolled and were 70 mm in length Three experimental cannabis sessions were conducted at weekly or greater intervals. Cannabis exposure sessions lasted 1 h, during which smokers consumed cannabis ad-libitum in the presence of non-smokers inside the closed chamber. The primary goal of these sessions was to conduct a pharmacokinetic evaluation of cannabinoids in biological fluids of non-smokers following extreme exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke.

Across the three experimental sessions, cannabis potency and room ventilation conditions were manipulated: Session 1 was conducted without air ventilation and cannabis cigarettes containing 5. Each smoker received a pre-weighed individual supply of cannabis cigarettes at the start of each session, and residues and unused portions were collected for weighing at session end. At the end of each 1-h cannabis exposure session, participants exited the room and immediately discarded their disposable clothing and washed their hands and face with soap and water.

After drying, they proceeded to a cannabis-free room investigative area for participation in specimen collections and behavioral and physiological assessments.

Could second hand marijuana smoke make you fail a drug test?

Urine, whole blood and oral fluid specimens were collected prior to each session baseline and at timed intervals following each session. Coincident with biological specimen collection, vital s heart rate, blood pressuresubjective ratings of intoxication and measures of cognitive performance were also obtained. Hair specimens were collected before and after each session from non-smokers.

A single pre-study baseline hair specimen was collected from each cannabis smoker and an additional hair specimen was after Session 1 or subsequent session for smokers who did not participate in all 3 sessions. Experimental measures were obtained every 30 min for the first 2 h, hourly during hours 2—4 and every 2 h during hours 6—8. Smokers were discharged after the 8-h post-exposure time point.

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Non-smokers remained in the study under supervision over-night and biological specimens and pharmacodynamic measures were obtained through the h post exposure time point. Assessments and outcomes, other than urine testingwill be reported elsewhere.

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Following the end of each 1-h cannabis exposure period deated zero timeparticipants were asked to void at 0. Thereafter, urine specimens were pooled for each subject for the following time intervals: 4—6, 6—8, 8—10, 10—12, 12—22, 22—26, 26—30 and 30—34 h. If multiple specimens were produced by an individual during a pool period, they were combined into an individual pool.

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Each participant was asked to empty their bladder at the end of each pool period for inclusion in that period. No mixing of specimens between participants occurred. Because of the logistics involved in collecting multiple types of measures from 12 participants, the exact timing of early specimen collections was somewhat variable; consequently, all specimen times should be considered as nominal values i.

Urine specimens were collected in clean, plastic containers labeled with the participant's identificationdate and collection time. Specimens to be pooled were transferred to a labeled plastic pooling vessel and kept refrigerated during the collection period. Bottle A specimens were thawed and aliquots were analyzed by immunoassay and gas chromatography—mass spectrometry GC—MS. Creatinine was determined with Siemens modified Jaffe reagent. Specific gravity was determined with a Rudolph J57 refractometer.

After hydrolysis, 1.

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A new study finds it is unlikely that a person exposed to secondhand marijuana smoke will test positive for marijuana themselves.
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